ابوالکلام آزاد کی ایک تاریخی تقریر (۱)

تعارف:

کچھ عرصہ ہوا مجھے دوستوں نے بتایا کہ یو ٹیوب پر مولانا ابوالکلام آزاد کی جامع مسجد دہلی میں کی گئی تاریخی تقریر خود انکی آواز میں مہیا ہے۔ میں نے چیک کیا تو پتہ چلا کہ ایک ہی جعلی رکارڈنگ کو متعدد لوگوں نے طرح طرح سے لوگوں نے اپلوڈ کر رکھا ہے، اور ہر جگہ اس پر خوب خوب خیال آرائیاں ہو رہی ہیں۔ ٹھیک اسیطرح جیسےاس انٹرویو پر ھوئی تھیں، اور اب بھی ہوتی رہتی ہیں، جو احراری جرنلسٹ شورش کاشمیری نے شائع کیا تھا۔ (ابوالکلام آزاد: سوانح و افکار۔ ۱۹۸۸۔ یہ کتاب انکے بیٹوں نے مرتب کی ہے۔)۔ کچھ عرصہ ہوا نوجوان وکیل اور دانشمند کالم نگار یاسر لطیف ہمدانی نے اس انٹرویو کی حقیقت کھول دی تھی اور انگریزی کی حد تک لوگوں کے علم میں آگیا تھا کہ وہ محض ایک جعل ہے۔ یہاں صرف دو باتوں کا اضافہ کرنا چاہونگا۔

شورش نے دو جگہ یہ لکھا ہے کہ مولانا نے۱۴؍۱۵اگست کی نیم شب کی تقریب میں کوئی حصہ نہیں لیا، اور ایک جگہ یہ اضافہ بھی جواہر لال نہرو کی زبانی کیا ہے کہ مولانا اس رات شدت غم سےسوئے بھی نہیں۔ جبکہ حقیقت یہ ہےکہ مولانا پہلی کابینہ میں شامل تھے اور شب کی تقریب میں سب وزراٴ کی طرح شریک ہوےتھے۔ اس موقعہ کی تصویر انٹرنیٹ پر دیکھی جا سکتی ہے۔ مولانا سردار پٹیل کی بغل میں کھڑےہیں۔

 اسیطرح شورش کا دعوی ہے کہ جب حیدرآباد کا معاملہ زور پر تھا تو نظام نے انکے پاس کچھ لوگ بھیجے تھے اور مولانا نے انھیں ۵ پوائنٹ کا مشورہ دیا تھا، جسکا ان نمائندوں نےمذاق اڑایا تھا۔ اسکے بعد شورش لکھتے ہیں: “حیدرآباد کا سقوط ہوگیا تو مولانا مسلمانوں کی بربادی کا احوال سنکر وہاں پہونچے۔ جو لوگ خونریزی کےمرتکب ہو رہے تھےانھیں روکا، مسلمانوں کی ڈھارس بندھائی ۔۔۔ نظام نے کھانے پر مدعو کیا۔ جو مصاحب دعوت نامہ لیکر آیا اس سے کاغذ لیکر پشت پر لکھ دیا: جس شخص کی سوٴ فہم اور نظر کج کی بدولت مسلمانوں کا لہو اسطرح بہا ہے، میرے لئے اسکے دسترخوان پر آنا ممکن ہی نہیں۔ انسانوں کے خون سے ہاتھ رنگ کر مجھے دسترخوان پر مدعو کرنا ابلہانہ جسارت ہے۔” قطع نظر اس سےکہ یہ نجی تحریرکسطرح حیدرآباد سے لاہور شورش کے پاس پہونچی حقیقت یہ ہےکہ حیدرآباد کے نمائندے دہلی میں تھے ہی نہیں، وہ کراچی میں تھےاور مسلم لیگ کے لیڈروں سے مذاکرات کر رہے تھے۔ مولانا ان لوگوں  سے ملتےیا خود حیدرآباد جاتےتو اسکا ذکر انکی کتاب ’انڈیا ونس فریڈم ‘   The Destruction of Hyderabad میں ضرور ہوتا، لیکن ایسا نہیں۔ اے۔ جی۔ نورانی کی تازہ کتاب

مفصل ترین تاریخ ہے، اس میں بھی یہ ذکر نہیں۔ البتہ وہ ۱۹۵۰ میں ضرور حیدرآباد گئے تھے، نہرو کے ساتھ اور وزیرِتعلیم کی حیثیت سے۔ اس موقعہ پر انکے میزبان نظام ہی تھے جو تب راج پرمکھ کہے جاتے تھے۔ اس موقعہ کی تصاویر ویب پربھی موجود ہیں۔

یوٹیوب پر مہیا تقریر (رکارڈنگ اور متن) بھی اسیطرح کا جعل ہے۔ اسکا متن ایک ملغوبہ ہے جس میں اصل تقریر کے ٹکڑے جگہ جگہ شامل ضرور ہیں لیکن انکےآگے پیچھےیاروں نے شورش کاشمیری کی “یادوں” اور مولانا کی بعض دوسری تحریروں کے ٹکڑےلگاکر اپنا تنور گرم کیا ہے۔ آواز کسی ایسے شخص کی ہے جو بے ہنگام ذاکری کرکے کماکھا سکتا ہے لیکن جسےمولانا کی مدلّل خطابت کا ذوق نہیں، صرف چیخنے کا شوق ہے۔ یہ  کوئی نہیں بتاتا کہ یہ رکارڈنگ کس نے کی تھی اور اب کسطرح دستیاب ہوئی ہے۔ ۱۹۴۷ میں ٹیپ رکارڈر عام نہیں تھے۔ اسٹوڈیو میں بھی صرف ’وائر رکارڈنگ ‘ ہی ممکن تھی جو ھر کس و ناکس کےبس کی بات نہ تھی۔ اب اگر یہ رکارڈنگ آل انڈیا ریڈیو نے کی تھی اور وہاں سے حاصل کی گئی ہے تو اعتراف میں کیا رکاوٹ ہوسکتی ہے۔ نہ اس میں کوئی ایسی منافقانہ یا فرقہ وارانہ بات ہے جسکو بھارتی حکومت پوشیدہ رکھنا چاہتی۔ خود یوٹیوب پر آل انڈیا ریڈیو کی ایک رکارڈنگ میں مولانا کی آواز موجود ہے، اور اس مختصر تقریر میں بھی مولانا کی صاف گوئی نمایاں ہے۔

آزادی یا تقسیم کے فوراً بعد مولانا نے دو بڑی اہم تقریریں کی تھیں۔ پہلی تقریر اکتوبر ۱۹۴۷ میں عیدالاضحی کے نماز کے موقعہ پر جامع مسجد دہلی میں، اور دوسری تقریر دسمبر ۱۹۴۷ میں لکھنئو کے وکٹوریہ پارک میں۔ پہلی تقریر بےحد اہم اور متاثرکُن تھی۔ جس نے بھی اس زمانے میں اسے سنا یا پڑھا رو رو دیا، لیکن خوداعتمادی بھی، جو اس وقت نایاب ہو رہی تھی، اس سے حاصل کی۔ اس میں مولانا کا انداز خطابت اپنی معراج پر پہونچ گیا تھا۔ مجھے یاد ہے کہ میرےایک چچا، جو پہلے خلافتی تھےاور بعد میں کانگریسی بنے، اسکے پورے پورے پیراگراف ہمیں سنایا کرتے تھے۔ دوسری تقریر کی اہمیت سیاسی یا تنظیمی زیادہ تھی۔ چنانچہ اب وہ کسی کو یاد نہیں۔ کچھ سال بعد مولانا کی ایک تیسری تقریر بھی بہت مشہور ہوئی تھی جو انھوں نےبھارتی پارلیمنٹ میں کی تھی اور جس میں انھوں نے جن سنگھی ذھنیت کے لوگوں، بالخصوص پرشوتم داس ٹنڈن کو براہ راست خطاب کرتےہوئےاپنی صاف گوئی اور زورِخطابت کا بھرپور اظہار کیا تھا۔

ذیل میں مولانا کی جامع مسجد دہلی میں کی گئی تقریر کا اصل متن پیش کیا جاتا ہے۔ اسکی تیاری میں تین کتابوں سے مدد لی گئی ہے:

۱۔ مالک رام (مرتب)، خطباتِ آزاد ( نئی دہلی: ساہتیہ اکادیمی،۱۹۷۴)۔

۲۔ عرش ملسیانی، ابوالکلام آزاد: سوانح حیات (نئی دہلی: پبلیکیشنز ڈویژن، وزارت اطلاعات و نشریات، ۱۹۷۴)۔

۳۔ عابد رضا بیدار، مولانا ابوالکلام آزاد (رامپور: انسٹی ٹیوٹ آف اورینٹل سٹڈیز، ۱۹۶۸)۔

ان کے علاوہ دو تین دیگر کتب سے بھی استفادہ کیا گیا ہے۔ مجھےیہ کہتے ہوئے شدید افسوس ہے کہ ان میں سے کسی نے بھی اپنے مآخز کی نشاندہی نہیں کی ہے۔ رشید احمد صدیقی صاحب نےایک جگہ لکھا ہے کہ یہ تقریر متعدد اردو اخباروں میں فوراً شائع ہوگئی تھی۔ میرےخیال میں ان جرائد میں تو ضرور چھپی ہوگی  جنکا تعلق جمعیة العلماٴہند یا انڈین نیشنل کانگریس سے تھا، جیسے الجمعیة (دہلی)، مدینہ (بجنور)، اور قومی آواز (لکھنئو)۔ افسوس کہ انکی پرانی فائلیں مجھے دستیاب نہیں۔

مولانا ابوالکلام آزاد کی ایک تاریخی تقریر (۲)

جامع مسجد، دہلی۔ بعد نماز عیدالاضحیٰ   (اکتوبر ۱۹۴۷)

         میرےعزیزو۔ آپ جانتےہیں کہ وہ کون سی زنجیر ہےجو مجھےیہاں لےآئی ہے۔ میرےلئے شاہجہاں کی اس یادگار مسجد میں یہ اجتماع نیا نہیں۔ میں نے اُس زمانہ میں بھی، کہ اُس پر لیل و نہار کی بہت سی گردشیں بیت چکی ہیں، تمہیں خطاب کیا تھا، جب تمہارے چہروں پر اضمحلال کی بجائےاطمینان تھا اور تمہارے دِلوں میں شک کی بجائےاعتماد۔ آج تمہارےچہروں کا اضطراب اور دِلوں کی ویرانی دیکھتا ہوں تو مجھےبےاختیار پچھلےچند سالوں کی بھولی بسری کہانیاں یاد آجاتی ہیں۔ تمہیں یاد ہے؟ میں نے تمہیں پکارا اور تم نےمیری زبان کاٹ لی۔ میں نےقلم اُٹھایا اور تم نےمیرےہاتھ قلم کردیے۔ میں نےچلنا چاہا تو تم نے میرےپاؤں کاٹ دیے۔ میں نےکروٹ لینی چاہی تو تم نےمیری کمر توڑدی۔ حتیّٰ کہ پچھلےسات سال کی تلخ نوا سیاست جو تمہیں آج داغِ جدائی دے گئی ہےاُس کےعہدِ شباب میں بھی میں نےتمہیں خطرےکی ہر شاہراہ پر جھنجھوڑا، لیکن تم نےمیری صدا سےنہ صرف اعراض کیا بلکہ غفلت و انکار کی ساری سنّتیں تازہ کردیں۔ نتیجہ معلوم کہ آج اُنھی خطروں نےتمھیں گھیرلیا ہےجن کا اندیشہ تمھیں صراطِ مستقیم سےدور لےگیا تھا۔

          سچ پوچھو تو اب میں ایک جمود ہوں یا ایک دُوراُفتادہ صدا، جس نےوطن میں رہ کر بھی غریب الوطنی کی زندگی گذاری ہے۔ اِس کا مطلب یہ نہیں کہ جو مقام میں نے پہلے دِن اپنے لئے چُن لیا تھا، وہاں میرے بال و پر کاٹ لئےگئےیا میرےآشیانےکےلئےجگہ نہیں رہی۔ بلکہ میں یہ کہنا چاہتا ہوں کہ میرےدامن کو تمہاری دست درازیوں سے گِلہ ہے۔ میرا احساس زخمی ہے اور میرےدِل کو صدمہ ہے۔ سوچو تو سہی تم نے کون سی راہ اختیار کی؟ کہاں پہنچےاور اب کہاں کھڑےہو؟ کیا یہ خوف کی زندگی نہیں، اور کیا تمہارے حواس میں اختلال نہیں آگیا۔ یہ خوف تم نے خود فراہم کیا ہے۔

          ابھی کچھ زیادہ عرصہ نہیں بیتا جب میں نے تمہیں کہا تھا کہ دو قوموں کا نظریہ حیاتِ معنوی کےلئےمرض الموت کا درجہ رکھتا ہے۔ اُس کو چھوڑدو، کہ یہ ستون جن پر تم نے بھروسہ کیا ہوا ہے نہایت تیزی سےٹوٹ رہےہیں لیکن تم نےسُنی ان سُنی برابر کردی اور یہ نہ سوچا کہ وقت اور اُسکی رفتار تمہارےلئے اپنا ضابطہ تبدیل نہیں کرسکتے۔ وقت کی رَفتار تھمی نہیں۔ تم دیکھ رہےہو کہ جن سہاروں پر تمہارا بھروسہ تھا وہ تمہیں لاوارِث سمجھ کر تقدیر کےحوالے کرگئے ہیں، وہ تقدیر جو تمہاری دماغی لغت میں مشیّت کی منشا سےمختلف مفہوم رکھتی ہے، یعنی تمہارےنزدیک فقدانِ ہمّت کا نام تقدیر ہے۔

          انگریز کی بساط تمہاری خواہش کے برخلاف اُلٹ دی گئی اور راہ نمائی کےوہ بت جو تم نےوضع کیے تھےوہ بھی دغا دے گئے،  حالانکہ تم نےسمجھا تھا کہ یہ بساط ہمیشہ کےلئےبچھائی گئی ہے، اور انھی بتوں کی پوجا میں تمہاری زندگی ہے۔ میں تمہارے زخموں کو کریدنا نہیں چاہتا اور تمہارے اضطراب میں مزید اِضافہ میری خواہش نہیں، لیکن اگر کچھ دُور ماضی کی طرف پلٹ جاؤ تو تمہارےلئےبہت سی گرہیں کھُل سکتی ہیں۔

         ایک وقت تھا کہ میں نےہندوستان کی آزادی کےحصول کا احساس دِلاتے ہوئےتمہیں پکارا تھا، اور کہا تھا کہ جو ہونےوالا ہے اُس کو کوئی قوم اپنی نحوست سے روک نہیں سکتی۔ ہندوستان کی تقدیر میں بھی سیاسی انقلاب لکھا جاچکا ہےاور اس کی غلامانہ زنجیریں بیسویں صدی کی ہوائےحُرِّیت سےکٹ کر گِرنےوالی ہیں۔ اگر تم نےوقت کےپہلو بہ پہلو قدم اُٹھانےسے پہلوتہی کی اور تعطل کی موجودہ زندگی کو اپنا شعار بنائےرکھا تو مستقبل کا مورّخ لکھےگا کہ تمہارے گروہ نےجو سات کروڑ انسانوں کا ایک غول تھا، ملک کی آزادی کےبارےمیں وہ روَیّہ اختیار کیا جو صفحۂ ہستی سےمحو ہوجانےوالی قوموں کا شیوہ ہوا کرتا ہے۔ آج ہندوستان آزاد ہے، اور تم اپنی آنکھوں سے دیکھ رہےہو کہ وہ سامنےلال قلعہ کی دیوار پر آزاد ہندوستان کا جھنڈا اپنے پورےشکوہ سےلہرا رہا ہے۔ یہ وہی جھنڈا ہےجس کی اُڑانوں سےحاکمانہ غرور کے دِل آزار قہقہےتمسخر کیا کرتےتھے۔

         یہ ٹھیک ہےکہ وقت نےتمہاری خواہشوں کےمطابق انگڑائی نہیں لی بلکہ اُس نےایک قوم کےپیدائشی حق کےاحترام میں کروٹ بدلی ہے، اور یہی وہ انقلاب ہےجس کی ایک کروٹ نےتمہیں بہت حد تک خوف زدہ کردیا ہے۔ تم خیال کرتےہو کہ تم سےکوئی اچھی شےچھِن گئی ہےاور اُسکی جگہ کوئی بُری شےآگئی ہے۔ یہ واقعہ نہیں واہمہ ہے۔ حقیقت یہ ہےکہ بُری شےچلی گئی اور اچھی شےآ گئی۔ ہاں تمہاری بےقراری اِس لئےہےکہ تم نےاپنےتئیں اچھی شےکےلئےتیار نہیں کیا تھا، اور بُری شےکو ہی ملجاوماویٰ سمجھ رکھا تھا۔ میری مراد غیرملکی غلامی سےہےجس کےہاتھ میں تم نےمدّتوں حاکمانہ طمع کا کھلونا بن کر زندگی بسر کی ہے۔ ایک دن تھا جب تم کسی جنگ کےآغاز کی فکر میں تھےاور آج اس جنگ کےانجام سے مضطرِب ہو۔ آخر تمہاری اِس عجلت پر کیا کہوں کہ اِدھر ابھی سفرکی جستجو ختم نہیں ہوئی اور اُدھر گمراہی کا خطرہ بھی درپیش آگیا۔

          میرے بھائی، میں نےہمیشہ سیاسیات کو ذاتیات سےالگ رکھنے کی کوشش کی ہےاور کبھی اس پُر خار وادی میں قدم نہیں رکھا۔ یہی وجہ ہےکہ میری بہت سی باتیں کنایوں کا پہلو لیےہوتی ہیں، لیکن مجھے آج جو کہنا ہےمیں اُسے بے روک ہوکر کہنا چاہتا ہوں۔ متحدہ ہندوستان کا بٹوارہ بنیادی طور پر غلط تھا۔ مذہبی اختلافات کو جس ڈھب سے ہوا دی گئی اُس کا لازمی نتیجہ یہی آثار و مظاہر تھےجو ہم نےاپنی آنکھوں سے دیکھے، اور بدقسمتی سے بعض مقامات پر آج بھی دیکھ رہے ہیں۔

          پچھلے سات برس کی روئیداد دہرانے سےکوئی خاص فائدہ نہیں اور نہ اس سے کوئی اچھا نتیجہ نکل سکتا ہے۔ البتہ ہندوستان کےمسلمانوں پر مصیبتوں کا جو ریلا آیا ہے وہ یقیناً مُسلم لیگ کی غلط قیادت کی فاش غلطیوں کا بدیہی نتیجہ ہے۔ یہ سب کچھ مُسلم لیگ کےلئےموجبِ حیرت ہوسکتا ہےلیکن میرےلئےاس میں کوئی نئی بات نہیں۔ میں پہلے دن ہی سے اِن نتائج پر نظر رکھتا تھا۔

          اب ہندوستان کی سیاست کا رُخ بدل چکا ہے۔ مُسلم لیگ کے لئےیہاں کوئی جگہ نہیں ہے۔ اب یہ ہمارےاپنے دماغوں پر منحصر ہےکہ ہم کسی اچھےاندازِ فکر میں سوچ بھی سکتے ہیں یا نہیں۔ اِس خیال سے میں نے نومبر کے دوسرےہفتہ میں ہندوستان کے مُسلمان رہنماؤں کو دہلی بلانےکا قصد کیا ہے۔ دعوت نامےبھیج دئیےگئےہیں۔ ہراس کا یہ موسم عارضی ہے۔ میں تم کو یقین دلاتا ہوں کہ ہم کو ہمارے سِوا کوئی زیر نہیں کر سکتا۔

          میں نےتمھیں ہمیشہ کہا اور آج پھرکہتا ہوں کہ تذبذب کا راستہ چھوڑدو۔ شک سےہاتھ اُٹھا لو، اور بےعملی کو ترک کردو۔ یہ تین دھار کا انوکھا خنجر لوہےکی اس دودھاری تلوار سےزیادہ کاری ہےجس کےگھاؤ کی کہانیاں میں نےتمہارےنوجوانوں کی زبانی سنی ہیں۔  یہ فرار کی زندگی جو تم نےہجرت کےمقدّس نام پر اختیار کی ہے، اس پر غور کرو۔ تمہیں محسوس ہو گا کہ یہ غلط ہے۔ اپنے دِلوں کو مضبوط بناؤ اور اپنےدماغوں کو سوچنےکی عادت ڈالو، اور پھر دیکھو کہ تمہارےیہ فیصلےکتنےعاجلانہ ہیں۔ آخر کہاں جارہےہو اور کیوں جارہےہو؟ یہ دیکھو مسجد کے مینار تم سےاُچک کر سوال کرتےہیں کہ تم نےاپنی تاریخ کےصفحات کو کہاں گُم کر دیا ہے؟ ابھی کل کی بات ہےکہ یہیں جمنا کےکنارےتمہارے قافلوں نےوضو کیا تھا، اور آج تم ہو کہ تمھیں یہاں رہتےہوئےخوف محسوس ہوتا ہےحالانکہ دہلی تمہارےخون کی سینچی ہوئی ہے۔

         عزیزو، اپنےاندر ایک بنیادی تبدیلی پیدا کرو۔ جس طرح آج سےکچھ عرصہ پہلےتمہارا جوش و خروش بےجا تھا اُسی طرح آج تمہارا یہ خوف و ہراس بھی بےجا ہے۔ مسلمان اور بزدلی یا مسلمان اور اشتعال ایک جگہ جمع نہیں ہوسکتے۔ سچےمسلمان کو نہ تو کوئی طمع ہِلا سکتی ہےاور نہ کوئی خوف ڈراسکتا ہے۔ چند انسانی چہروں کےغائب از نظر ہو جانے سے ڈرو نہیں۔ اُنہوں نے تمہیں جانےکےلئےہی اکٹھا کیا تھا۔ آج اُنہوں نےتمہارےہاتھ میں سےاپنا ہاتھ کھینچ لیاہےتو یہ تعجب کی بات نہیں۔ یہ دیکھو کہ تمہارےدِل تو اُن کےساتھ ہی رخصت نہیں ہوگئے۔ اگر دِل ابھی تک تمہارےپاس ہیں تو اُن کو اپنےاُس خدا کی جلوہ گاہ بناؤ جس نے آج سے تیرہ سو برس پہلےعرب کےایک اُمّی کی معرفت فرمایا تھا: إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُواْ رَبُّنَا ٱللَّهُ ثُمَّ ٱسْتَقَٰمُواْ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ ۔ ] جو خدا پر ایمان لائے اور اُس پر جم گئے تو اُن کے لئے نہ تو کسی طرح کا ڈر ہے اور نہ کوئی غم ۔[ ہوائیں آتی ہیں اورگُزر جاتی ہیں۔ یہ صرصر سہی لیکن اِس کی عمر کچھ زیادہ نہیں۔ ابھی دیکھتی آنکھوں ابتلا کا یہ موسم گزرنے والا ہے۔ یوں بدل جاؤ جیسےتم پہلےکبھی اِس حالت میں نہ تھے۔

         میں کلام میں تکرار کا عادی نہیں لیکن مجھےتمہاری تغافل پیشگی کےپیشِ نظر باربار کہنا پڑتا ہےکہ تیسری طاقت اپنے گھمنڈ کا پشتارہ اُٹھاکر رخصت ہوچکی ہے۔ جو ہونا تھا وہ ہوکر رہا ہے۔ سیاسی ذہنیت اپنا پچھلا سانچہ توڑچکی، اور اب نیا سانچہ ڈھل رہا ہے۔ اگر اب بھی تمہارے دِلوں کا معاملہ بدلا نہیں اور دماغوں کی چبھن ختم نہیں ہوئی تو پھر حالت دوسری ہے۔ لیکن اگر واقعی تمہارے اندر سچی تبدیلی کی خواہش پیدا ہوگئی ہے تو پھر اِس طرح بدلو جس طرح تاریخ نےاپنے تئیں بدل لیا ہے۔ آج بھی کہ ہم ایک دورِانقلاب کو پورا کرچکے، ہمارےملک کی تاریخ میں کچھ صفحےخالی ہیں اور ہم ان صفحوں میں زیبِ عنوان بن سکتےہیں، مگرشرط یہ ہےکہ ہم اسکےلئےتیار بھی ہوں۔

         عزیزو، تبدیلیوں کےساتھ چلو۔ یہ نہ کہو کہ ہم اس تغیّر کےلئے تیار نہ تھےبلکہ اب تیار ہوجاوٴ۔ ستارے ٹوٹ گئےلیکن سورج تو چمک رہا ہے۔ اس سے کرنیں مانگ لو اور ان اندھیری راہوں میں  بچھادو جہاں اجالےکی سخت ضرورت ہے۔

         میں تمھیں یہ نہیں کہتا کہ تم حاکمانہ اقتدار کےمدرسےسے وفاداری کا سرٹیفکٹ حاصل کرو، اور کاسہ لیسی کی وہی زندگی اختیار کرو جو غیرملکی حاکموں کے عہد میں تمھارا شِعار رہا ہے۔ میں کہتا ہوں کہ جو اجلے نقش و نگار تمھیں اس ہندوستان میں ماضی کی یادگار کےطور پر نظرآرہےہیں وہ تمھارا ہی قافلہ لایا تھا۔ انھیں بھلاوٴ نہیں ۔ انھیں چھوڑو نہیں۔ انکے وارث بن کر رہو،  اور سمجھ لو کہ اگر تم بھاگنے کےلئےتیار نہیں تو پھر کوئی طاقت تمھیں نہیں بھگاسکتی۔ آؤ عہد کرو کہ یہ ملک ہمارا ہے۔ ہم اِسی کے لئے ہیں اور اِس کی تقدیر کےبنیادی فیصلےہماری آواز کےبغیر ادھورےہی رہیں گے۔

         آج زلزلوں سےڈرتےہو؟کبھی تم خود ایک زلزلہ تھے۔ آج اندھیرےسےکانپتےہو؟ کیا یاد نہیں رہا کہ تمہارا وجود خود ایک اُجالا تھا؟ یہ بادلوں کےپانی کی سیل کیا ہے کہ تم نے بھیگ جانے کےخدشےسےاپنےپائینچےچڑھالئےہیں۔ وہ تمہارےہی اسلاف تھےجو سمندروں میں اُتر گئے۔ پہاڑوں کی چھاتیوں کو روند ڈالا۔ بجلیاں کڑکیں تو اُن پر مسکرادیے۔ بادل گرجے تو قہقہوں سے جواب دیا۔ صرصر اُٹھی تو رُخ پھیردیا۔ آندھیاں آئیں تو اُن سے کہہ دیا کہ تمہارا راستہ یہ نہیں۔ یہ ایمان کی جانکنی ہےکہ شہنشاہوں کے گریبانوں سےکھیلنےوالےآج خود اپنےہی گریبان کےتار بیچ رہےہیں، اور خدا سے اِس درجہ غافل ہو گئےہیں کہ جیسےاُس پر کبھی ایمان ہی نہیں تھا۔

         عزیزو! میرے پاس تمہارے لئے کوئی نیا نسخہ نہیں ہے، وہی پرانا چودہ سو برس پہلےکا نسخہ ہے۔ وہ نسخہ جس کو کائناتِ انسانی کا سب سے بڑا محسن لایا تھا۔  اور وہ نسخہ ہے قرآن کا یہ اعلان : وَلاَ تَهِنُوا وَلاَ تَحْزَنُوا وَأَنتُمُ الأَعْلَوْنَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ۔ [بد دل نہ ہونا ، اور نہ غم کرنا۔ اگر تم مومن ہو تو تم ہی غالب رہوگے۔]

         آج کی صحبت ختم ہوئی۔ مجھے جو کچھ کہنا تھا وہ اختصار کے ساتھ کہہ چکا۔ لیکن پھر کہتا ہوں اور باربار کہتا ہوں: اپنےحواس پر قابو رکھو۔ اپنےگردوپیش اپنی زندگی خود فراہم کرو۔ یہ منڈی کی چیز نہیں کہ تمھیں خرید کر لادوں۔ یہ تو دل کی دکان ہی میں سےاعمال صالحہ کی نقدی سے دستیاب ہوسکتی ہے۔

         والسلام علیکم و رحمةالله و برکاتہ۔

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Originally published at HumSub blog in two parts.

یاسر لطیف ہمدانی کی تحریریں:

http://www.wichaar.com/news/315/ARTICLE/17497/2009-12-02.html 

http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/opinion/30-Jun-2014/shorish-kashmiri-azad-and-partition

مولانا آزاد کی ایک تقریر کا اقتباس انکی آواز میں:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n72A1VUYkF4

From left, CM Naim, historian Saleem Kidwai (standing), Ram Advani and book collector Aslam Mahmud. Photo: Unknown waiter at Lucknow golf course, February 2015, via CM Naim.

(CM Naim,  Saleem Kidwai (standing), Ram Advani and  Aslam Mahmud).

 

When I first visited it in the final months of 1949, the shop that would go on to become an iconic landmark occupied a small area within the vast and mostly empty Gandhi Bhandar in the heart of Lucknow’s Hazratgunj. And the sign proudly said “Ram Advani Bookseller”. The use of the singular made it clear, I suppose, that besides the wares on display you were also going to encounter an individual. I had gone there with a relative, and I doubt if I exchanged more than a formal greeting on that occasion with its handsome and urbane owner.

With time, I became more familiar with the wares of the shop – by then it had moved into the Mayfair Building and acquired two signs, the old red one outside the building and a new “wrong” sign, “Ram Advani Booksellers” above its doors – but I don’t think I bought a single book there during those four years. So in those years too, Mr Advani remained a distant figure, from whom one received a nod of recognition but whose eyes one tried to avoid – needlessly, it must be added – as one stepped out without making any purchase. My meagre pocket money was better spent on a movie at the Mayfair Theatre next door.

I mention all this to underscore what made that shop so unique – it allowed cash-starved booklovers like me to browse. And to enjoy the almost erotic frisson of having access to so many temptations. To pick up a book, flip its pages, admire the cover and illustrations, read the blurb, then move on to the next alluring title. One might not have the money to buy even one book, but so what, one at least knew that they were there for the taking some other time.

Before this man, who himself loved books and knew how booklovers feel – even the cash-starved kind – opened his doors, the practice among the booksellers in Lucknow was as follows. The books were put on high shelves, with a number of counters before them. You went and scoured the shelves and then asked the man at the counter to show you the book you wanted. You had then a few minutes to examine it, with the counter-man watching and judging if you were a likely customer. You could then ask for a couple of more books but if by then you had not decided to buy something, you received a subtle hint to not waste their time any further. The counter man would take away all the books and go to some other customer or start doing something else.

Incidentally, the situation at Urdu bookstores was much worse. There, you had to tell the owner what you wanted – a particular book; the works by a particular author; books in some specific genre – who then asked certain numbered bundles to be brought. He would pull out the specific items and show them to you. A transaction had to be made within 10 minutes or so, otherwise the bundles would again disappear in the loft above. There was no way to know what was available for sale, except by flipping the pages of a published catalogue.

Interestingly, just as Ram Advani changed all that with his browse-able shop for the Anglophone readers, around the same time the late Nasim Ahmad made all Urduwalas happy with his famous “Danish Mahal” in Aminabad, where one could browse without fear. I don’t know if the two ever met but I do know they held each other in much respect.

I’m quite sure I never bought a book from Ram Bhai’s shop until 1966, when I spent a year away from Chicago in Barabanki, my hometown. My relationship with him in the beginning was formal – he was a pretty formal person in most ways, and may have even appeared as somewhat severe to some people. The big difference in age – he was 14 years senior to me – made me feel diffident while talking to him. But over the years, like for so many others before me and after, our relationship turned into a friendship that I cherished then and will always cherish. He became Ram Bhai to me, and I became Naim to him – in his letters he would now use “My dear Naim” instead of “Dear Mr Naim.” Then, some 10 or so years back, he took to calling me “Naim Bhai”. I protested, but he did not stop. I finally explained it to myself as a curious expression of his misplaced sense of propriety in view of my shiny pate and white beard.

As Lucknow changed, it became a place less and less familiar or comfortable for me. Besides depressing physical changes, people’s behaviour in public spaces became radically different. One could not walk safely where once it was possible to stroll. By 1990, Ram Bhai’s shop became an oasis in what had become, for an old fogey like me, a desert, a place with no civility though displaying much opulence. With Ram Bhai I knew where I stood and could never be disappointed in my expectations. With him I could also share memories of an earlier, more civil Lucknow. His shop became the place where I could ask people to come and meet me, and if they were of the “right” kind I would take them upstairs to Ram Bhai’s cool dark mezzanine floor office. We would then have a cup of tea with him – it was always rather weak to my taste though plentiful. Inevitably, the visitors would soon join the ranks of Ram Bhai’s countless admirers across the world.

Buying books at Ram Bhai’s shop was always a problem for me. Too many interesting books on display, too many equally interesting books that he knew would interest me and he could obtain in a few days from the publishers. The most fabulous thing for me and for any visitor from abroad was the fact that the books one bought could be made into perfect parcels and sent homeward abroad through postal service by Ram Bhai’s most capable staff. And for a nominal charge one could even have one’s own other acquisitions mailed similarly. The other thing that made him special for so many was his ability to remember what one liked or was interested in. Every few months, it was normal to receive from him a note, first by postal service then by email, describing the new acquisitions of the shop that should be of interest to the particular recipient.

The same happened when you visited the shop, coming from abroad. After a few minutes of personal chitchat, he immediately started informing you of the new books that should interest you, often giving his own brief but candid view of some particular book. Often there would be several visitors in the shop at the same time, and more than one conversation would be going on as dear old Raju would make more tea and offer biscuits or go out to get samosas for the few who shamelessly asked for them. Ram Bhai would sit and listen and add his two bits once in a while. But he never gossiped. Many of us did, but he would only listen, and only with a look of tired indulgence on his face.

Though he spoke Sindhi and Hindi-Urdu – I doubt if he read them too – Ram Bhai was basically an Anglophone. Nevertheless, in social discourse and manners, he was a quintessential old-time “Lakhnavi”. (That reminds me of the beautifully embroidered chikan kurtas bought for him by Darshi Bhabhi, an epitome of ageless beauty and elegance herself, that he wore with great aplomb – I longed to don the same but knew how false they would look on me.) Whatever he had seen and heard and read about Lucknow was safe and ready in his memory to share with others. And in the limited confines of his shop he had created the aura of courtesy and civility that he believed he had experienced once in Lucknow’s public spaces, as if to impress upon his younger visitors: Yes, this is how it used to be once and could be again if you only tried.

Rest in peace, Ram Bhai, you were a dear and cherished friend to countless people and also a forlorn reminder of a Lucknow that is now gone forever.

 

First published in Scroll.in on March 14, 2016.

 

When I was growing up in the small town of Barabanki in the 1940s, the mosques had no loudspeakers. Those abominations would appear at the political rallies, and then disappear. Even in our Eidgah, where hundreds of people came from all parts of the town to pray together on the two Eid festivals, no loudspeakers were used to summon them. Not only that, even during the prayers, no microphone was used by the imam. In fact, when the idea was suggested by some individuals, it was quickly rejected by most of the so-called notables, who organised the special prayers, as well as the clergy. The imams of the neighborhood mosques, at the time, would proclaim the azaan themselves, or had some young man with a loud voice do the honors from the roof of the mosque. The human sound, often quite melodic, that emerged from his throat had enough reach to bring the nearby faithful to the mosque. And it did so no less efficiently than the electronically engorged aberration that now resounds over Barabanki. Actually, I should use the plural, for what we now have are scores of aberrations.

Last year, when I made a determined effort over several days, I discovered that the fajr or dawn prayer azaan came barging into my room in Barabanki from eight different mosques – mind you, only one of them was within walking distance from my home – and the whole thing, the calls from those eight different mosques, lasted nearly 30 minutes, as each mosque made its separate contribution. At moments, what one heard was an ugly cacophony. Far from providing the aesthetic pleasure that a single human voice produced for most listeners in my boyhood days, the effect of what came over the air now was intolerable even to my deeply devout sisters.

Undistorted and un-amplified, an ordinary human’s voice was perfectly able to do the task in the days when few people had alarm clocks or, for that matter, even a wristwatch. But now, even the tiny mosque in my neighborhood that can accommodate no more than 50 or 60 people has two loudspeakers tied to its minaret, and a sound system that sends its call out to a body of people 50 times larger than its capacity. But one cannot suggest a change. Apparently, the people who attend the neighborhood mosque can do perfectly well without an amplified alarm in all aspects of their daily lives except when it comes to reaching the mosque to form a congregation. Their grandfathers could do without loudspeakers but not these stalwarts of the 21st century.

Given the recent controversy over Sonu Nigam, I totally believe that no use of inappropriate amplification should be allowed in open spaces. Period. Not at akhand paths, not at jagrans, not at wedding celebrations, not at political meetings, not at anything. Not within a mile of any hospital. Not close to any school. And most definitely not during the hours of 10 pm and 7 am. Needless to say, the required laws are there on the books, what does not exist is the will to enforce them.

There are, however, a couple of things that Indian Muslims should themselves be concerned about that are related to the matter of electronically amplified sounds emerging from mosques. The idea of praying together in a congregation is quite important in Islam, hence the need to construct mosques. And that leads to the immediately relevant question: how far away should one mosque be from another? The rule is clear: mosques should be so built that the call from one must not reach another. The worshippers should not be confused, nor should there be an appearance of discord or disunity. If you don’t believe me, ask the All India Muslim Personal Law Board. They will confirm the above, even if reluctantly. For the size and numbers of mosques has now become a matter of honor.

Then there is the second, perhaps even more critical, issue. Everyone is aware of the quantum increase in sectarian thought and practice among the Muslims of South Asia. The evil that started in Pakistan, particularly during the Zia-ul-Haq regime, has now well established itself in India too. Thankfully, the murder and mayhem that are now routine in Pakistan have not yet happened in India. Indian Sunnis are not killing Indian Shi’ahs, nor have the Indian Barelavis gone gunning after Indian Wahhabis. But anyone who reads Urdu journals knows that sectarian intolerance has increased, and no effort to curb it is in sight.

I first visited Pakistan in 1980, and well recall what some friends in Lahore told me was happening in the Old City. After the ‘isha (late evening) prayers, they said, the Barelavis and the Deobandis regularly engaged in denouncing each other, using their azaan amplification systems, and filling the air with choice imprecations. My friend had said that with a smile. Now, of course, that smile is long gone. In fact, when I was in Lahore last year, and staying with a friend in an affluent neighborhood, I heard an azaan that I had never heard before. Later I found out that the Barelavis in Pakistan now have their own special azaan, and the additional material was put in basically to annoy the Deobandis. Probably the same is now happening in Bareli and Mumbai, too, but until last year it had not reached Barabanki.

Public display of religiosity is now common place. Piety that used to be expressed privately or through public humanitarian acts has now been replaced by a religiosity that is much more about pomp and glory, about self-exaltation, than humility and service. The cry one hears is of shaukat-e Islam (Glory of Islam). Anything that detracts from that presumed glory becomes “intolerable”. Sonu Nigam’s complaint against the use of loudspeakers was turned into an attack on Islam’s “honor”, and had to be retaliated against by demanding that he should be denuded of his “honor”. “Shave his head off,” brayed one savior of Islam. “Put a garland of shoes around his neck.” Now I only wish Sonu Nigam had saved the hair clippings and mailed them to his detractor.

More seriously, it is about time administrators across the country began to enforce the existing laws. Put strict limits on amplification. Enforce hours. Punish those who break the laws. And the so-called leaders – political and religious – should also make sure that the presumed piety of one party does not put undue burden on the rest of the citizens of the country.

 

First published at Scroll.in on April 21, 2017.

The first Urdu printing press in Lahore, Matba’-i Koh-i Nur, was established in 1849, the year the city was fully brought under the authority of the East India Company. Printing presses were an essential need of the new political system — it needed rulebooks to train and guide its indigenous staff in the mechanics of the new administration as well as printed registers and forms for use in the new sarrishtas or government departments. Consequently, one finds a progress of printing presses across North India in the wake of the progress of the Colonial rule. The introduction of litho printing a couple of decades earlier also helped a great deal, for the imported technology was perfect for Persian and Urdu, the two languages that the new rulers preferred in their North Indian possessions outside of Bengal.

 

The pioneering press was set up by Munshi Harsukh Rai, who had earlier worked in a press at Meerut. Not surprisingly, his first publications were revenue manuals. But the following year Munshi sahib also started publishing a weekly named Koh-i Nur. In doing so he had again followed the pattern set by earlier presses. According to Muhammad Atiq Siddiqui (Hindustani Akhbarnavisi, Kampani ke Ahd Men, 1957), by 1857 there had come up 167 Urdu presses in the Urdu region of North India, and of them 103 had also published a newspaper of their own. Most, however, did not last very long. Koh-i Nur was a major exception; it lasted 54 years. And in many of those years it appeared twice, even thrice, per week. And yet, such has been the fate of Urdu newspapers that one would be hard put now to find even 54 individual issues of that paper.

 

It is little recognised that in the matter of publishing reading matter for the benefit of Urdu-speaking women Lahore has precedence over both Delhi and Lucknow. It was here in 1887 that Munshi Mahbub Alam began publishing his famous ‘penny journal,’ Paisa Akhbar, and then in 1893 launched a monthly journal, Sharif Bibi, that reached a readership beyond Lahore. Five years later, Munshi Mumtaz Ali launched his history-making weekly, Tehzeeb-i Nisvan, that was edited by his wife, Muhammadi Begum — probably the first or second Indian woman to hold such a responsibility. The latter journal lasted much longer than the former, and also gained a much wider circulation across the subcontinent. More significantly, it could boast a remarkable roster of women writers as contributors, and even editors. A few years later, both Munshi Mahbub Alam and Munshi Mumtaz Ali launched special journals aimed at children readers — another first for Lahore. And yet again, not only in Lahore but in no place on earth can one find complete files of the early years of these invaluable journals. Sadly, public libraries, government archives, and educational institutions in South Asia have mostly neglected to preserve Urdu periodicals and newspapers, not only in Urdu but also in most Indian languages.

 

It is in this context that the quiet diligence of one Pakistani deserves grateful recognition: Ziaullah Khokhar of Gujranwala. During a recent trip to Pakistan I had the good fortune to meet him and get a glimpse of his invaluable collection of Urdu books and journals.

 

 

Khokhar sahib, who must be in his late seventies now, seems to have lived most of his life in Gujranwala, where his father, Abdul Majeed Khokhar, had a manufacturing business. The father was fond of reading, and besides books also used to subscribe to several newspapers and magazines. Unlike most people, however, he never discarded any of them. Every book was saved, as was every single issue of the journals that were bought. Here is how Khokhar sahib has described his father:

 

I was at the seventh or eighth stage in the progress of my life, when my revered father made me fond of reading children’s magazines. From my earliest schooldays it was my habit to go from school straight to Bazar Almariyan, to my father’s factory, and give him a helping hand till dusk. Our society was then firm in traditional ways and values, and times were very peaceful and harmonious, shops would close very early. On many days, my father would place me on his bicycle and take me to the Basheer Sahrai Akhbar Ghar in the nearby Rail Bazar, where he would get me a few such magazines

 

That habit of reading and preserving became ingrained in the young Ziaullah, who studied science and engineering, but apparently never fully joined the family business. Instead he devoted himself more strenuously to expanding the collection initiated by his father. Towards that end he even travelled to other cities on a regular basis. That has particularly enhanced the value of his collection, since we know how not all books published in Karachi — not to mention Sialkot or Peshawar — always reach bookshops in Lahore.

 

The result of that true labour of love is now called the Abdul Majeed Khokhar Memorial Library, lovingly set up in Khokhar sahib’s house in a modest neighbourhood of Gujranwala. Only a small plaque on the gate announces it to the world. Presently it contains some 200,000 individual issues of newspapers and periodicals — literary, religious, popular, political — and some 35,000 books, including 700 autobiographies, 1300 travelogues, 200 collections of letters, and 400 volumes of biographical sketches. There are 800 titles devoted to Ghalib, and 1800 to Iqbal. There are also more than a thousand books of various kinds in Punjabi.

 

Khokhar Sahib’s diligence is evident not only in the size of his collection but also in the manner he has single-handedly preserved them. Most of the space in his substantial house is now full of shelves, on which sit books and bundles of periodicals carefully wrapped in cellophane to protect them from dust and the insecticide he uses. And yet so much more needs to be done. The day I went to the library I could see books and newspapers and periodicals lying in small stacks on the floor of a couple of rooms, not neglected but waiting to be lovingly wrapped and preserved by Khokhar sahib and his young assistant.

 

Khokhar sahib is not ungenerous towards sincere readers and scholars. He responds to people’s requests, providing information, even photocopies if at all possible. Uniquely, however, he has been doing what only a few major institutions have done in the past. He has been preparing and publishing topical catalogues of what he has saved, thus enabling historians of Urdu language and literature to gain a fuller sense of Urdu’s printed heritage.

 

Not surprisingly one of the four catalogues so far published is devoted to the kind of periodicals he discovered as a child. Issued in 2004, it is titled Bachchon ki Sahafat ke Sau Saal (One Hundred Years of Children’s Journals). It lists over two hundred titles, giving as much bibliographical details as possible, such as the place and date of the journal’s first publication, and the names of the editors. Additionally it gives details of the journal’s special issues in the library. Like many I had always assumed that Munshi Mumtaz Ali’s Phool was Urdu’s first journal for children. Now I know that while Phool came out in 1909 under the editorship of Nazr-e Sajjad Hyder, it was preceded by Munshi Mahbub Alam’s Bachchon ka Akhbar, which started in 1902. The former, a weekly, lasted a few decades, whereas the latter, a monthly, survived for only ten years. Fortunately for us, the Khokhar library contains 12 issues of that pioneering journal, as well as 400 issues of Phool.

 

An equally unique catalogue is devoted to travelogues. Titled Faharisul Asfar (Catalogue of Travels), it lists the 1300 travelogues the library has, first by their titles and next by their authors. Of them, 18 were published before 1900, 124 between 1901 and 1947, and the rest are more recent, making evident that there has been an explosion of travel writing in Urdu, almost exclusively in Pakistan, since 1947. I was surprised to discover that the largest number were authored by the late Hakim Muhammad Saeed (55), followed by Qamar Ali Abbasi (20) and Mustansar Husain Tarar (17). Also noteworthy is that the Khokhar collection contains at least 115 travelogues written by women.

 

Another catalogue is titled Ta’limgahon ke Rasa’il va Jara’id (Journals and Periodicals Published by Educational Institutions). This was printed in 2007, and was freely distributed in honour of his late father. It lists more than 450 titles of a wide range of regular or occasional journals published by colleges, universities, and learned societies across the subcontinent. The oldest dates back to 1894. Though most come from Pakistani institutions, quite a few Indian institutions also find representation. In addition to giving the usual information about the periodical and the number of the copies preserved at the library, Khokhar sahib has also taken the trouble to indicate what special issues were published, and under whose editorship.

 

The fourth catalogue is another invaluable resource for research in Urdu studies. And again a first on its subject: the special issues that various Urdu monthlies brought out devoted to a single topic or author. Titled Mahana Rasa’il ke Khususi Shumare (Special Issues of Monthly Journals), it runs to over 400 pages, and makes apparent Khokhar Sahib’s unusual curiosity about Urdu periodicals, and his rare awareness of the wealth of knowledge that lies buried in them.

 

By remarkable coincidence, a similarly invaluable collection of Urdu periodicals was put together in India by an individual of modest means — a car mechanic by profession — totally removed from educational institutions: Abdus Samad Khan sahib’s collection in India was lovingly described by Raza Ali Abdi on BBC, but was already well known to scholars in India and abroad. It was eventually purchased by a consortium of American universities and then established as Urdu Research Centre at the Sundarayya Vignana Kendram, Hyderabad, where it is now secure and will eventually be made available to worldwide readership via digitisation.

 

The achievements of Ziaullah Khokhar, this unassuming and wise man of Gujranwala, also deserve genuine recognition and solid support. He has done the hard work of collection, preservation, and cataloguing; now it is for the people of Pakistan — indeed for all lovers of Urdu language — to undertake the easier task of making sure his collection remains secure and available to future generations. It is a national treasure and should be treated in that manner by the state and private institutions that champion the cause of learning and education in Pakistan.

 

Originally published in Dawn (June 26, 2016)

Sherlock Holmes, the most widely known detective in the world, is perhaps also the most widely recognized fictional character in the world—at par with Hamlet, who appeared amongst us four hundred years ago. Holmes, however, made his debut more recently, in 1887, in a novella titled A Study in Scarlet. The author was a twenty-eight years old doctor named Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, not terribly successful in his medical practice and needing supplementary income after his marriage two years earlier. The story, sad to say, brought him only twenty-five pounds. His second book with Holmes—The Sign of the Four—was a similar financial disappointment. But when, in 1891, he changed genres and set afoot “the game” in six taut tales—they appeared in the newly founded but instantly popular magazine Strand—Doyle gained the success he wished for.

 

By 1891, English popular literature was easily available to many Indians in urban centers, through pubic libraries and franchised bookstalls at major railway stations. Also by then much popular English fiction, by authors such as George W.M. Reynolds, Edward Bulwer-Lytton, and H. Rider Haggard, was not only being avidly read but also translated into Urdu in some fashion. For example, Reynolds’ Wegner, the Wehrwolf was translated by Muhammad Ameer Hasan as Fasana-e ‘Ala’uddin va Laila, and serialized in the Avadh Akhbar around 1890; and in 1896, translations of five of his novels were available from the journal’s publishers, the preeminent Newal Kishore Press of Lucknow.

 

Doyle’s tales must have been read by many contemporary Urdu speakers, but with no apparent impact. While tracing the development of mystery fiction in Urdu I was not able to find any evidence of Doyle’s popularity at the turn of the century. The reason, most likely, was the dominant literary taste. Urdu speakers, fond of dastans and similar tales of adventure, preferred even in translations from the English what we now call “thrillers,” as opposed to the tales of “detection” that Doyle excelled at. At the beginning of the 20th century in Europe, the other big name in crime-fiction was Maurice Leblanc, whose gentleman-burglar, Arsène Lupin, rivaled Holmes in popularity. It is telling that Lupin was the first to be made available in Urdu, through Tirath Ram Firozepuri’s translations and Zafar Omar’s “transcreations,” beginning in 1916. He also remained dominantly popular, even influential, for a couple of decades. Holmes made his appearance only a few years later, but though he found due popularity he never gained an Urdu imitator. That preference for “thrillers” still persists. Of the more than 200 original novels that have made Ibne Safi a household name, most are thrillers and not tales of detection.

 

To my knowledge, the first person to translate a Holmes story into Urdu was Shaikh Firozuddin Murad, a professor of Physics at the Aligarh Muslim University. A translation of A Study in Scarlet, it was titled Sharlak Homz ka Pahla Karnama, and was published at Lahore by the Dar-al-Isha’at Punjab, a prominent publisher of popular fiction at the time. Notably, the book was published with Doyle’s permission, as we learn from Murad’s preface. Murad also explains why he found the book so appealing: “This tale is not made of elaborate speeches and trite subjects. Instead, a chain of events is superbly narrated to make evident to us how an intelligent man, employing needful observation and a correct line of reasoning, can accomplish anything.” In other words, Murad liked the story not because it was sensational or thrilling but because it engaged his mind. Interestingly, when the same was translated a second time, by Amar Nath Muhsin and titled Khunnaba-e ‘Ishq (“The Bloody Torrent of Love”) the publisher still described it on the title page as “a novel that stands victorious in the field of detection, aided by the sciences of Physiognomy, Anatomy, and Chemistry.”

 

Murad published two more books of Holmes stories: Hikayat-e Sharlak Homz (1921) and Yadgar-e Sharlak Homz (n.d.). The first has twelve stories selected from the canonical four collections, the second seven. Murad thus managed to translate and publish one-third of the canonical 56 stories before he stopped. In the preface to the Hikayat, Murad described the stories as both interesting and instructive. “In the guise of a tale,” he wrote, “they teach us how to use our eyes correctly, draw conclusions from what we observe, and then develop a scientific line of reasoning. … Such stories can serve a useful purpose in Urdu.”

Expanding on his belief in the pedagogic quality of the stories, Murad did something unusual in the Hikayat: each translated narrative was presented as if it came in three sections. “The first section,” Murad wrote, “presents the mysterious affair at hand, the second offers a detailed account of Holmes’s investigation, and the final third section reveals the mystery and its solution. The reader’s enjoyment should lie in his stopping at the end of the first section and try to come up with an explanation of his own. Failing in the attempt, he should then read the second section, close the book, and then endeavor to imagine what Holmes would do next.” That was a noteworthy insight into Doyle’s narrative structures.

Murad also did something in two stories that Doyle might have strongly disapproved. In his translations of “The Adventure of the Three Students” and “The Adventure of the Reigate Squire”—in Urdu Tin Talib’ilm and Rai Ghat ke Ra’is, respectively—Murad made all secondary characters Indians. The locale in the first story remained Cambridge, but the three students and their harried teachers were given Indian names; in the second, even the locale was made Indian. Both give little added pleasure, and Murad did well not to tinker with the rest of the stories. In the Hikayat, he also included some crude litho illustrations based on the etchings in Strand. Both failures, nevertheless, indicate the earnestness and devotion that this professor of Physics brought to his labor of love.

Curiously, a decade later another professor of Physics similarly fell in love with Holmes. Naseer Ahmad Usmani, who taught at the Osmania University at Hyderabad, translated The Hound of the Baskervilles as Khandani Aseb, and The Valley of Fear as Wadi-e Khauf. Usmani too was an earnest but clumsy translator; he was also seemingly much influenced by the Bureau of Translation at his university—he used Mufattish for “detective”, Shaikh-al-balad for “mayor”, and Nishan-e Abi for “watermark”!

The two professors probably could not have gained Holmes many fans. Things changed only when that extraordinary translator, Tirath Ram Firozepuri, took up the task. After firmly establishing Lupin’s popularity among the readers of crime fiction in Urdu, he turned his attention to Lupin’s archrival—probably around the same time as Usmani—and in quick succession produced extremely readable versions of The Valley of Fear (as Wadi-e Khauf), The Hound of the Baskervilles (as Atishi Kutta) and The Return of Sherlock Holmes (as Karnamajat-e Sharlak Homz). His translations made the name well known in Urdu, but his numberless readers always showed greater appreciation for, and demanded more of, Lupin’s adventures and other similar thrillers Firozepuri had offered earlier and continued to offer till his death in 1954.

It’s about time someone again took up the challenge and completed in Urdu the work started by these pioneers. Urdu speakers never cease to claim greatness for their language. But surely no language can be considered great unless it has available in it most of the revered “Holmesian” canon of 56 stories and 4 novels? The effort may even enhance logical thinking among Urdu speakers, and prove Murad right.

 

***

Originally appeared in Dawn, June 2, 2015.

 

07. May 2016 · Comments Off on Mir’s ‘Lunacy’ · Categories: This, That, & This Again, Urdu Language and Literature · Tags: , , , , ,

A new Pakistani film has just come out—Mah-i-Mir—invoking Mir’s name and his ‘lunacy.’ Some of its viewers may find interesting the following, included in my book Zikr-i Mir: The Autobiography of the Eighteenth Century Mughal Poet: Mir Muhammad Taqi ‘Mir’ (Oxford, India: 1999). It is, of course, quite prosaic, and in no way should be construed as a comment on the film written by Sarmad Sahbai, for whom I have nothing but respect. (Minor changes have been made in the text.)

 

‘We Poets in our youth begin in gladness; / But thereof comes in the end despondency and madness.’ Wordsworth wrote those lines in 1802, eight years before Mir’s death, expressing the Romantic view of a cre­ative life’s trajectory. In Mir’s case, both despondency and madness came early in his youth. And though he was cured of the ‘madness’ soon enough, despondency seems to have hounded him all his life. Madness or junun, however, remained Mir’s favourite literary theme, and he explored it in his ghazals as no one has since.

There was a hereditary strain of emotional and/or mental imbalance in Mir’s paternal line, affecting at least some of its males. We learn from Zikr-e Mir (henceforward ZM) that Mir’s grandfather, after reaching the age of fifty, experienced ‘instability of disposition’ (mizaj az i’tidal munharif shud), and that Mir’s only uncle was born with some mental prob­lem (khalal-e dimagh), and died in his youth. Nothing is known about Mir’s only brother, Muhammad Razi, except for the brief men­tion in ZM. Mir gives no information about the exact number of his children, and mentions only one, Faiz Ali, in his writings. From other sources, however, we learn that late in his life Mir had one more son, Mir Hasan Askari Zar (a.k.a. Mir Kallu Arsh), from his second wife. Both sons are reported to have been rather strange in temperament, but neither is described as suf­fering from ‘insanity.’

Mir wore his ‘lunacy’ as a badge of honour, and has described it twice in some detail. Once in a masnavi entitled ‘Khvab-o-Khayal’ (‘Dream and Illusion’) written some time between 1752 and 1778, then again in ZM (ca. 1773). The following is a summary of the masnavi:

‘Blessed is he who doesn’t exist, for I know what existence brought me. Times kept me bewildered and distressed. I enjoyed not a day of peace in my hometown. People close to me turned into enemies the day I ‘raised my head.’ Friends and companions deserted me. Finally, with tearful eyes, I left home and somehow travelled from Akbarabad to Delhi. Here I suffered much hardship. And as I silently bore my burden I became mad. Sometimes I remained obsessed with some thought, other times I ran away from company. Still other times I foamed at the mouth and threw stones at people. My state continu­ously worsened. My madness reached up into the heavens: if I looked sky­ward and saw the moon I would become so terrified that I would faint. Eventually I began to see a lovely human shape in the moon, and I be­came obsessed with it. It remained in my sight no matter where I looked. Sometimes it would speak to me, other times it would be silently coquettish and playful. It would tease me and also comfort me. Sometimes it would lie down beside me, but when I would reach out to touch it there would be nothing. And in the morning it would hasten back to the moon. I turned pale and could hardly move from weakness. Someone brought an amulet to cure me; another sum­moned a spell-caster. Others brought physicians, who gave me potions that were against my natural disposition. My passion or madness in­creased. Then they started keeping me locked in a narrow room, and gave me little to eat or drink. One afternoon as I sat outside that dark cell they pounced upon me and had me cupped. I fainted, but next morning when I came to my senses, they started bleeding me again. This went on for a long time. I lost all strength. I fell into a stupor, and remained confined to my bed for many days. Gradually some strength began to return. I was able to open my eyes again, and that lovely figure returned to my sight. But now it would often stay away from me for hours. And when it would return, it would not look at me with that earlier feeling. Sometimes it would scold me, and accuse me of having been unfaithful to it. Other times, it would be­come disdainful and turn away from me. Then one day, it cast me a hopeless glance and returned to the moon, never to be seen again that vividly. For some time I could still see some shadow of its presence in the moon or catch a brief glimpse of it in some dream. Then that too stopped. It never appeared to my sight again, and that joyful in­timacy faded into a long lost dream.’

As against the above, where Mir’s torturers are many and name­less, the account in ZM puts the entire blame on Sirajuddin Ali Khan ‘Arzu’, who, Mir alleges, was instigated by Mir’s step-brother, Muhammad Hasan, out of sheer mal­ice. In the poem, the tragedy occurs not too long after Mir’s arrival in Delhi; in ZM, it happens after Mir has been with Arzu for some time and even studied a few books with him. Clearly, even by Mir’s own account, Arzu initially treated him decently enough—the alleged change occurred only after Muhammad Hasan’s letter arrived. So far no evidence other than Mir’s own words has been found to confirm the charge against Arzu.

The actual brief spell of emotional or mental imbalance cannot be de­nied. What is fascinating, however, is Mir’s obsession with the moon. He was literally ‘moonstruck’—a concept not too often in­voked in the Islamicate world, but not exactly unknown either. Mir himself tells a revealing story in Faiz-e Mir about some dervish named Shah Madan, who used to live in a graveyard. Mir says he once spent a day in his com­pany, then adds, ‘That night under moonlight his madness flared and he began to whirl and dance. By chance his foot hit a tomb­stone and broke. Before the night ended, he was dead.’ (However, there is no mah-zada or mah-zadagi in Persian, and mah-parast only means ‘a lover.’)

Mir states in ZM that his fascination with moon began quite early: ‘When I was a little child my nanny, as she would wash my face, would say to me, “[Look at the] Moon! [Look at the] Moon!” and I would look up in the sky—ever since that time I was fascinated by the moon.’ However, the significance of his remarks becomes dubious when we note that Mir has used here not only an obscure idiom from Arzu’s famous dictionary Charagh-e Hidayat, he has also expanded on it by using Arzu’s gloss. This is how Arzu explains the idiom, mah mah guftan: ‘It’s a common practice that when the mother or the nanny or some other person washes a child’s face and the child cries and remonstrates, that person points to the sky and says, “Moon. Moon.” It’s a subterfuge to divert the child and stop his cry­ing.’ Mir’s fascination perhaps also grew out of the pleasure he must have derived from the exceptionally beautiful moonlit nights of Agra that he mentions in another anecdote in Faiz-e Mir.

In both accounts Mir’s lunacy ends after he is cupped or bled at the insistence of his well-wishers, though the description in ZM has an additional detail: the doctors also ‘irrigate’ his brain [through internal medicine]. Both are recommended treatments in the Greco-Arabic sys­tem of medicine for melancholia, which is understood to result from an excess of heat in the body created in turn by an excess of black bile. After the cure Mir, in the prose version, gets on with his life and noth­ing more is mentioned of that experience. In the versified version, there remains a lingering sense of remorse and longing, as if the brief spell with the ‘moon-person’ was the happiest time of Mir’s life, and what came later only disappointed him.

Also, in both accounts, the sexual identity of the fantasy figure is not clear. Persian, of course, has no grammatical gender. But even in the Urdu poem, the gender is governed by the word used to refer to the figure— where surat is used, the verbal endings are feminine, but where naqsh is used, the endings are grammatically masculine. Hence my use of ‘it’ in the above summary. Further, the brief section describing the figure’s beauty contains no word that expli­citly suggests a particular sex.

As is plentifully evident in his poetry, Mir was obsessed with the theme of madness (junun), which in the tradition of Islamicate love poetry is the ultimate end of Passion (‘ishq), and the destiny—nay, the cherished goal—of all true lovers. The perfect lover in that tradition is Qais, the legendary lover of Laila, better known as Majnun (‘Affected by Madness’ or ‘Possessed by Jinns’). Mir returns again and again to the theme of junun and its ramifications—the tearing of garments, the running away from human habitations into some wilderness, the chains and fetters of asylums, and so forth. Madness, for him, becomes some­thing sublime—a transforming force, the battle-cry of a free spirit, a challenge to conformity and authority and all that is wrong and corrupt in the world. In Urdu at least, no one before Mir, and none after him, has explored this theme with such profound effect. Mir’s celebration of this sublime madness set the model for all later poets, from Ghalib to Iqbal and down to the Progressives. Nisar Ahmad Faruqi, on the basis of Mir’s too frequent use of ‘moon-related’ words—such as mahtab, mahtabi, chandni, qamar, etc—speculates in his Talash-e Mir that Mir’s spell of ‘lunacy’ could have been caused by his falling in love with a girl whose name meant ‘moon’ and thus bringing upon himself the grievous disapproba­tion of his family members. What is equally, if not more, significant is that Mir, to my knowledge, never used any ‘lunar’ imagery in the context of junun—as if to underscore the difference between what he felt was simply affective and what he must have regarded as supremely poetic.

19. July 2015 · Comments Off on Tarana, Naghma, Anthem—what’s in a name? · Categories: Archive, Students, This, That, & This Again, Urdu Language and Literature · Tags: , , ,
Jagan Nath Azad was the son of Tilok Chand Mahrum. Both were good enough poets, famous and much respected while they lived, but now largely forgotten. Azad was also an informed admirer of Iqbal, and his writings on the poet are still worth a look. His name, however, recently keeps coming up in odd newspaper columns in India and Pakistan. Odd, I hasten to add, only because the columns are not about poetry. People keep mentioning Azad’s name in the same context as Pakistan’s national anthem, claiming that he was the first to write one—at the express order, a few even maintain, of the Quaid. The latest repetition of that legend is the witty essay “Nationalism over Verse” by Mr. Khaled Ahmed (The Indian Express, June 12, 2015), which unquestioningly refers to Abdul Majid Sheikh’s assertion in his recent book, Lahore: 101 Tales of a Fabled City, that “the Lahore poet Azad was commissioned by Quaid-e-Azam to write Pakistan’s national anthem three days before the creation of Pakistan in 1947.” Not having seen Sheikh’s book I cannot say what his particular source of information was, but I have seen many articles in the Urdu press in the past making that same claim.

At the base of all the fascinating verbiage is one sentence that Azad wrote forty-nine years back, and that too in an essay that had nothing to do with anthems. Azad, a prolific writer, wrote in several genres successfully. Ankhen Tarastiyan Hain, his book of personal sketches of some of the many remarkable people he met in his life, came out in 1981. It contains a lovely essay about a wonderful man named Salahuddin Ahmad—most people who came in touch with him added Maulana to his name, though he was anything but a conventional Maulana. Salahuddin Ahmad was one of Urdu’s foremost journalists, and his magazine, Adabi Duniya, was arguably the most respected Urdu literary magazine in the Thirties and Forties of the previous century.

In that essay, dated September 16, 1966, Azad mentions his own situation in Lahore as the date of “Independence” approached. On August 14, 1947, he tells us, he was the only Hindu still living in Ram Nagar, the Lahore neighborhood that was once almost exclusively inhabited by his coreligionists. He writes: “And one day I discovered that I was the only Hindu left of that original population of sixty thousand. Everyone had left. In that state [of things], on the night of the 14th of August, I heard from the Lahore Radio my own Tarana-e Pakistan.” He then gives the full poem, which contains five stanzas, and adds: “If I’m not mistaken, that was perhaps the first tarana-e Pakistan that reached the ears of the listeners the moment Pakistan appeared on the world’s map, i.e. at midnight on the 14th of August.”

To my knowledge, Azad never claimed that he wrote Pakistan’s first qaumi tarana or “national anthem.” Nor, as some have asserted, that he had been asked by Jinnah to write one. Had that been the case, Azad would have mentioned it proudly in 1966. So how did the legend develop that Jinnah had personally invited Azad to write an anthem for Pakistan, and that he did so because Azad was a Hindu and Jinnah wished to establish the “secular” core of his communal demand, regardless of the fact that Jinnah was not known for any knowledge of Urdu poetry, and that the two were never together even in the same city? It seems to have developed out of an article by Luv Puri in which statements were quoted from an interview that Puri had done in 2004 when Azad was almost 85. (The interview was not published in Azad’s life. Hiw words are quoted only in Mr Puri’s English, and are often confusing—at one place Azad’s friends tell him that Jinnah had asked for Azad by name, then a few lines later it changes into “some Urdu-knowing Hindu.” Puri also claims that the poem was broadcast from Karachi, when Azad in 1966 explicitly mentioned the Lahore radio station. Only the original Urdu text can tell us what Azad actually said at the time.)

The problem lies in Urdu, in its occasional impreciseness caused by the habit of so many of its educated speakers—I include myself among them—of frequently thinking in English while speaking in Urdu. It so happens that Urdu has three words—tarana; naghma; and git—that have commonly been used in the context we are concerned with. And Azad had obviously written a poem at least a few days before August 14 that he called “Tarana-e Pakistan,” and, equally obviously, it had been in the possession of the Lahore Radio for sufficient time in order for it to be set to music and broadcast at the historic midnight moment.

Tarana is a Persian word, and thus related also to Sanskrit. John T. Platts, in his highly dependable dictionary (1884), traces it into the Sanskrit root “taru,” and gives as its primary meaning: “Modulation, melody.” He also mentions its use as the name of a kind of song—the well-known genre of Tarana in the North Indian style of classical music. Syed Ahmad Dehlavi, in his equally trustworthy Farhang-e Asafiya (1918, 2nd edition) gives the following: “Literal meaning, a handsome man; melody, song; a particular kind of song commonly referred to as Tillana.” Naghma, on the other hand, is of Arabic origin, and its only glosses, in both dictionaries, are the same as the primary meanings of Tarana, i.e. “melody, song.” Had Azad titled his poem “Naghma-e Pakistan,” there would be none of the present confusion. His preference for tarana was simply another example of the influential popularity of the two Taranas of Muhammad Iqbal. And when Iqbal had titled his first such poem, “Tarana-e Hindi” (The Indian Anthem)—“sare jahan se accha hindostan hamara, now a popular, ceremonial marching song of the Indian army—he could possibly have had in mind a future independent Indian nation, but, far more certainly, he was not at all thinking of military parades, raising of flags, and other ceremonial occasions where a national anthem is now prominently sung.

When anthems and national songs are mentioned in South Asian contexts, some mention is invariably made of Muhammad Iqbal and his two poems that have tarana in their titles. Khaled Ahmad too brought him up at the end of his essay, bemoaning the fact that Pakistan ignored its “national poet…while choosing its national anthem, but in India, a poem of his, ‘Saare Jahan se Accha,’ is an unofficial national song.” Then Prof. Harish Trivedi, in his equally witty riposte titled “Anthems and Ironies,” made more comments on Iqbal’s poem and also brought in his second tarana, calling it a “revised version” of the first. He also expanded upon Pan-Islamism, Iqbal’s changing worldview, Vande Matram, and Muslim abhorrence of “anthropomorphic deification.”

According to the late Dr. Gyan Chand Jain (Ibtida’i Kalam-e Iqbal, ba Tartib-e Mah-o-Sal, Hyderabad, 1988), Iqbal wrote the first tarana poem in August 1904. He was then a lecturer in Philosophy at the Government College, Lahore, where Lala Hardayal, the future revolutionary, was a student. Hardayal set up a Young Men’s Indian Association in opposition to the existing Young Men’s Christian Association at the college, and invited Iqbal to preside over its inaugural meeting. Iqbal agreed, but instead of a formal address, he recited the poem he had expressly written for the occasion. It was so well received, a contemporary report says, that he had to present it a second time at the conclusion of the meeting. Iqbal’s title for the poem was “Hamara Des” (Our Land). Apparently, Iqbal gave the poem its present title when he published his first Urdu collection, Bang-e Dira (1924), when he is known to have extensively revised or edited many poems that he chose to include. (He excluded quite a few of his earliest poems, including an elegy on the death of Queen Victoria.) In any case, his tarana was an “anthem” only in the most common sense of that word in English: a rousing song identified with some specific group of humans.

The new title, however, placed the poem on an equal footing with another, later—post 1908—poem, titled “Tarana-e Milli” (The Millat’s—All Muslims’—Anthem), also included in that collection. It is not a “revised version” of “Tarana-e Hindi” but an independent new poem. Its famous opening couplet reads: “chin-o-‘arab hamara, hindostan hamara // muslim hain ham, watan hai sara jahan hamara” (China and Arabia are ours; India is ours too. We are Muslims; the entire world is our homeland). Posterity, sad to say, has largely read the two poems as antagonistic to each other, with the later poem, many claim, canceling out the earlier, and reflecting, as Prof. Trivedi holds, the “Pan-Islamism” that Iqbal allegedly championed after discarding an earlier Nationalism.

To my mind, Iqbal viewed the first poem as a patriotic anthem, while the second poem to him was just as much a rejection of territorial nationalism as it was a celebration of an exclusively Muslim group consciousness. That is made clear by the poem—a fierce denunciation of “Nationalism”—that immediately follows. Its title, “Wataniyat” (lit. Homeland-ism), is followed by an explanatory subtitle: “ya’ni watan ba-haisiyat ek siyasi tasawwur ke” (I.e. Homeland as a political concept). Iqbal, manifestly, wished to leave no impression that he was against Patriotism; after all, the Prophet himself had championed it. He only wished to reject modern, territorially defined Nationalism that then dominated political scenes across the world, a sentiment he expressed more explicitly many times elsewhere. Consider this couplet from “Khizr-e Rah,” one of his major poems, in which the legendary figure Khizr, his chosen “guide on the path,” lists for Iqbal’s benefit the theoretical concepts that bedevil contemporary world’s thinking: “nasl, qaumiyat, kalisa, saltanat, tahzib, rang // Khwajgi ne khub chun chun kar banae muskirat,” “Race, Nation, Organized Religion, State, Civilization, Color of the Skin—what wonderful soporifics Capitalism has assembled for you!” Tagore and Iqbal, had they ever exchanged ideas over a cup of tea, would have quickly found agreement on the dangers of blind Nationalism.

Bang-e Dira, in fact, contains two other poems that are of acute relevance in this regard. One is clearly marked as a “national song”—its Urdu title reads, “Hindustani Baccon ka Qaumi Git.” The non-use of taraana in the title is suggestive of an effort to avoid calling the poem a “national anthem.” The other poem comes immediately after this “national song,” and is titled “Naya Shiwala” (The New Temple). Both were written before 1905. Given the frequent brouhaha concerning some Indian Muslims refusal to sing the famous national song Vande Matram, it is worth quoting one line from the latter poem: “Khak-e Watan ka mujh ko har zarra dewata hai” (Every particle of my homeland’s dust is a god to me). I doubt if Iqbal would have had had any objection to the “anthropomorphic deification” in Vande Matram as opposed to the history and politics of the novel where the song originally appeared. His thinking on Nations and Homelands may or may not have altered with time—a matter that will forever remain contested—but the fact that Iqbal chose to retain all the four, above-mentioned poems in his very first Urdu collection is a strong reminder that we should think twice before pigeon-holing him in any fashion. Doing otherwise will only be to our own loss.

As for the question, Was Azad’s poem Pakistan’s first “national anthem”? the answer lies in asking When and where was a national anthem first sung or played in Pakistan? To my mind, it was when the Pakistani flag was first raised after the Union Jack had been lowered, and when Jinnah took the first ceremonial salute. Someone should find out what happened in Karachi at those moments. From what I remember reading decades back, it was only an instrumental piece of music based on the first stanza of Iqbal’s poem “The Earth Welcomes Adam” that begins: khol ankh zamin dekh falak dekh, fiza dekh // mashriq se ubharte hue suraj ki zia dekh (Open your eyes and see the earth and the sky // see the brilliance of the sun rising in the east). The music was composed by some unit of the Pakistan army, and it had been asked to do so because Jinnah did not wish to have “God Save the Queen” played at the march past. Let’s recall that both India and Pakistan were not then republics, and had only Governors General—formally “appointed” by the Queen.

 

First published in Scroll.in on July 19, 2015.

 

P.S. Soon after publication, a friend forwarded an important link—a detailed article in Dawn (Karachi) from 2011. I was not aware of it, nor it appears was Khaled Ahmed. Too bad for both of us.

 

Did you hear that the American Ambassador in Rome went and lit seven candles before the case containing the Shroud of Turin on behalf of President Barack Obama? Or, that the Secretary of State, John Kerry, ordered a diplomat from the American Consulate at Chennai to go and place flowers on the deity in the holiest temple at Thanjavur? I’m sure you did not. And for a very good reason—neither incident actually happened. I made them up just now to catch your attention. Now consider the following news as reported today (April 21, 2015) in some Urdu newspapers in India:

American President sent a chador [a ceremonial sheet of cloth] to the annual observation at the shrine of Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti at Ajmer.

All papers also published images to complement the news. Here is one report in the Sahafat (Lucknow). Chador at Ajmer 4:21

The caption reads: “Ajmer: At the occasion of the 803rd ‘Urs of Khwaja Mu’inuddin Chishti people are carrying the chador sent for presentation by the American President Barack Obama.” The same image appeared the same day in the Aag, another daily published from Lucknow, with some additional details:

report in Aag 4:21

Ajmer: A special chador was presented on behalf of the American President  Barack Obama at the 803rd ‘Urs of Khwaja Mu’inuddin Chishti.  Today was the first day of the six-day commemoration. Richard Verma, the American Ambassador to India had given this red sheet to Salman Chishti, an attendant at the shrine, on Thursday in Delhi. And today he, [i.e. Chishti], offered that sheet at the shrine and read out the message sent by the American President in which the latter had said that no matter what our beliefs and traditions we must strive to make Peace a certainty, and that we must spread light where there was darkness and love where there was hatred.

A different image was published in the daily Sahara in its New Delhi edition.

Sahara image

The headline reads, “American President sent a chador for the ‘urs of Khwaja Mu’inuddin Chishti.” The report mentions that it was given by the American Ambassador to an attendant of the shrine and was carried to the sacred grave by some “officials from the Embassy.”

Khwaja Mu’inuddin Chishti (d. 1236) was the founding saint of the Chishti Sufi order in India, and is popularly regarded as the “Head” of all Sufis in India. His ‘urs or the annual commemoration of “the day he joined his Beloved”—God—is celebrated in a grand manner. Over the years it has become common to read in the news about Bollywood stars of any age and Indian politicians of every hue visiting the shrine, and further displaying their devotion by offering elaborate chadors. These are usually draped over the grave of the saint for a while and then shared by the attendants or resold to another devout visitor.

Not having come across any previous indication of President Obama’s devotion to saints and shrines even of the Christian kind, I was quite intrigued by these reports. Bollywood celebrities and Indian politicians go to Ajmer to ensure success in their enterprises, both business and electoral. Ordinary folks visit the shrine hoping to get the saint to intercede with God on their behalf and let them have a child (preferably male), be ridden of some possessing spiri (male or female), escape conviction in some court case, succeed in examinations and interviews, get a job in Dubai or a visa to the United States, and so forth. But why, I wondered, should the President of the world’s greatest power and its most exceptional nation send a gaudy satin sheet to have it draped over the grave of a 13th century saint in a remote town in Rajasthan, India?

Then other questions came up. Did he pay for it personally, or did the Embassy buy it? And if it was the Embassy in New Delhi, then under what account did they list the expenditure to satisfy the General Accounting Office nitpickers? The last question revealed the whole story, for it was, as young people say, a “no brainer.” The money for that gaudy red satin sheet must have come from the funds earmarked “War on Terror; sub-category: Islamic Extremism.”

Obviously either the White House or the Embassy in India—probably both—has swallowed the latest snake oil being peddled by the experts on “Islamic Terror.” Turn all Sunni Muslims into Sufis, the latter declare, and the world will become safe from all the Wahhabis, Salafis, Deobandis, Ikhwan, Jama’atis, and other baddies. An attractive solution for many reasons. Just compare the price of a satin sheet with the cost of a missile fired from a drone. There is no collateral damage either. And it offers much better photo opportunities.

Curiously, only just recently, similar “experts” in New Delhi brought a bunch of Imams and Sufi shrine-keepers, led—you guessed it—by another caretaker from Ajmer, to meet with Prime Minister Modi. The worthies offered their “Sufi Islam” in the service of the new government. Here is an image of that historical meeting on April 6, 2015 as reported in Sahafat in its Delhi edition of April 8

. Ulama and Modi copy

Could it be that it was not some hapless junior officer at the Embassy but Prime Minster Modi, who recommended this low cost-high gain “sheet diplomacy” to his friend, admirer, and biographer in the White House? And that it was the Defender of the First Amendment who chose to go along just to humor his new-found soulmate in New Delhi? We will never find out.

Meanwhile let us hope that the caretakers of the Shroud of Turin and the priests at the temples of Thanjavur do not come across this blog and start demanding similar displays of faith and devotion from nearby American diplomatic missions.

***

P.S. Today’s (April 22, 2015) Sahara (New Delhi) brings the news that Sonia Gandhi, Atal Bihari Vajpeyi, and Narendra Modi have also offered chadors at the shrine. The chador sent by by the President of the Indian National Congress, as seen in the picture below, could be the grandest—it is definitely larger and more elaborate than that sent by the President of the United States. As always, the State Department chooses to economize where it shouldn’t. A chador being brought from Pakistan is reported to be a mile long. Now that is some sheet.

Sonia's chador

 

 

31. December 2012 · Comments Off on Discussing Books at the end of 2012 · Categories: This, That, & This Again

Usually year-end discussions or surveys are a bore, but the following in Dawn (Pakistan) serves up more than some good titles to seek and read; it informs us much  about the reading public in Pakistan. The participants are significant writers themselves, and their enthusiasm for the books they read and enjoyed is evident.

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As 2012 comes to an end, Books&Authors takes a look at what the year meant for literature in Pakistan. The good books and the not so good ones, fiction’s ability to help us make sense of our world, the evolving nature of censorship, the challenges of accessibility and what’s in store for readers in 2013 are just some of the questions that were raised when writer Mohammed Hanif, Sindhi-language poet Amar Sindhu, writer and critic Asif Farrukhi, writer, translator and publisher Musharraf Farooqi and writer, translator and critic Bilal Tanweer sat down to take a look at contemporary literature in Pakistan.

While Sindhu and Farrukhi expressed disappointment at the dearth of good prose writers in Sindhi and Urdu, respectively, Tanweer said that he has hopes from upcoming English writers. Meanwhile, Farooqi questioned the belief that Pakistanis don’t read and said that quality books need to be made available more easily.

The following pages contain excerpts from the discussion:

15. December 2012 · Comments Off on “The Treason of the Intellectuals” in Pakistan · Categories: This, That, & This Again

Summer of 1970. Rochester, N.Y. I was teaching in the Summer School on South Asia at the University of Rochester. Noticing an announcement concerning a conference on Pakistan’s economy being held on the campus, I decided to attend it. Until that moment I was totally ignorant of the realities of the politics of Pakistan. The sessions at the conference were eye-openers. All the big names were there, the Harvard gang led by Gustav Papaneck and his ilk, the big names from what was then West Pakistan—the guys who went on to live a good life off World Bank and the post-1972 Pakistan, and the big guns from what was still East Pakistan. Rahman Subhan is a name that jumps into memory. As I said, the sessions opened my eyes, and made me realize for the first time what had been happening in Pakistan in the name of Development. Consequently I was not surprised when the big break up happened the following year. I’m sure there is some record somewhere of the papers read at that historical meeting.

Unfortunately, i.e. for the new Pakistan, the MBAs with World Bank and IMF aspirations continued to hold their own in the new country. They were the ones who were also favored by the dictators and autocrats who followed Yahya Khan in the President House, for both sets were keen to make good off the United States. But their acts, mostly of commission, are hardly ever mentioned in the Pakistani media. Thus it was a pleasure to come across the essay, “Providing intellectual cover to General Zia’s sectarian policiesby Murtaza Haider at Dawn.com/blog.

One hopes he will write more, taking into account those who preceded Mr. Burki. Needless to say, the role of the “intellectuals” in the PPP, particularly during the days of Mr. Z. A. Bhutto, is a story that still has not been told.